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2021高雄國際貨櫃藝術節范布倫之星:以探索海洋城市特色為基礎,運用貨櫃導引出空間構築創意的藝術行動

發布時間 : 2022.06.24

2021高雄國際貨櫃藝術節「范布倫之星」:以探索海洋城市特色為基礎,運用貨櫃導引出空間構築創意的藝術行動;圖片提供/高雄市立美術館〈攝影/Studio Millspace & KMFA)

「高雄國際貨櫃藝術節」自2001年起邁入第11屆,可謂台灣近年常見以在地特色出發,以藝術共創發展城市特色的重要展演活動之一。多年來展演場所均以延續高雄城市發展重點場域為主要考量,透過多年累積業已可見期成果,其中重要不變的核心,就是探索「海洋城市」特色為重要基礎,而什麼物件可以代表海洋城市?以海洋城市為「場域」作為畫布的環境藝術該如何呈現?「貨櫃」因此就成為其中首選。 
 
貨櫃之於海洋,就像城市裡的建築單元般讓大眾得以理解,同時貨櫃也具有「空間構築」的展現機會,無論從意象上及藝術性展演上都有無限的發展潛力,也因此從2001年至2021年歷經近20年、共11屆發展迄今,以台灣「環境藝術」發展角度看來業有舉足輕重的地位。「2021高雄國際貨櫃藝術節—范布倫之星」因應疫情影響結合實體虛擬等多重展演型態,更可看到環境藝術展演的多樣可能性。

本文試圖從高雄海洋城市的環境發展沿革、空間構築及虛實整合展演型態等面向,逐一闡述從中的觀察及所想,進一步理出可供後續辦理環境藝術時的典範及參考。

高雄作為重現「海洋城市」的領頭羊 
台灣四面環海,從過去的產業發展脈絡看來與「海洋」息息相關,從各地均有通商港口銜接國際國內,就可看出「海洋」產業特色。因應各地貨運港口產業變遷,各港口的規模也都隨之調整,當一座港口從過去以「貨」為發展思維要調整成以「人」為主的時候,也象徵港口內的設施及空間等規劃設計都需要隨之改變,而高雄港就是在此思維脈絡下首開台灣先例「打開」港口,開啟台灣港口如何以人為主的空間規劃想像。

隨著打開港口空間使用也為之改變,也因此延伸如駁二藝術特區、棧貳庫KW2、高雄流行音樂中心、高雄港埠旅運中心等重要地標,此外也連帶使得高雄港周邊產業產生餐飲、旅宿及藝術文化等不同於過去以港埠為主的服務產業,拉進「海洋」與民眾生活休閒的距離,也讓高雄身為「海洋城市」的地景特質得以進而張顯。

從這個視角切入,除了透過硬體建設發展來進一步「聚眾」外,如何讓認識海洋城市的身體感知有更深層的啟發?「環境藝術」的展演行動也就成為重要選項之一,「高雄國際貨櫃藝術節」也就是在此脈絡下進而產生,協同硬體建設以相對的軟性展演型態來串聯進而相輔相成,讓海洋城市意象有更多樣的發展潛力,同時也帶動不同屬性群眾前來認識體驗高雄「海洋城市」之美。

以「貨櫃」為元素連結海洋意象及構築空間想像
「貨櫃」對民眾來說,是直接得以與港埠產業得以連結的元素之一,如以高雄港廣大港埠作為畫布來看,也是最得以展現海洋城市意象的媒材原料。除了元素得以連結海洋意象外,對筆者來說,其另一個重要價值就在於構築空間的藝術性展現。自2001年起至今,來自國內外的藝術家、建築師等無不發揮創意,將固定單位尺寸的貨櫃發展出多樣不同的藝術型態,其中不乏有許多除了視覺的感官刺激外,也深化成為得以進入到貨櫃所構築的空間中體驗,甚至進一步進入「生活」,讓身體的感知與海洋城市的場域得以更加串聯。
 
如今年參展由國立臺南藝術大學建築藝術研究所鄭乘騏所帶領的「場域·結構‧行動」組-B群創作作品〈我們都住在黃色潛水艇〉,作品名稱開宗名義就告訴觀眾這件作品是可以「住」的,而「住」的行為是從製作過程一直到展出持續發生,由參與其中的諸位創作者以自己的身體及生活習慣,拆解一般所認知系統化的貨櫃元素形成各個獨立的生活空間,再從中詮釋多樣的居住「幻境」。

筆者之所以認為是幻境,主要因為要如此接近港埠生活是多少人的期待及幻想,日夜與港灣為伍,在其中讀書玩樂吃喝,這樣的經驗若不是有藝術的加持及「保護」怎麼可能有如此機會?另外從構築的角度看,當要將模矩化的貨櫃拆解來面對不同創作者的生活環境營塑,左右鄰兵相互禮讓或是爭奇鬥妍的結果,也讓此作品創造出「永遠未完成」的狀態,因為人就生活在其中,而生活是隨時機動及改變的。

今年由形構設計方俊傑+方俊能創作作品〈時空口〉則有另一番對海洋城市意象致敬的企圖。其將貨櫃拆解為片狀,從水平向度改為垂直向度,讓人們進度此空間自然往天空仰望進一步帶入如浩瀚海洋的迷幻之境,另外其以垂直站立的姿態來迎戰高雄港邊廣闊的地景,「以小搏大」的態勢也讓人印象深刻。

最後由著名英國福斯特聯合建築師事務所(Foster+Partner)建築師之一邱維煬 × QIU(Quality Innovation United)等國內外團隊作品〈謐靜立方〉,造型上以理性模矩方格回應貨櫃自身的系統性特質,抽離貨櫃常見多樣色彩,以極度簡單及抽象的白色盒子來呈現謐靜的「秘境」感受,讓背後的海洋港灣成為主角,而人在其中所產生的隱約剪影,則讓此貨櫃「立方」更加具有想像空間。

無論是強調得以居住的〈我們都住在黃色潛水艇〉、以小博大擺出與海洋抗衡姿態的〈時空口〉,或是試圖以極致簡化的形式隱藏在海洋場域中的〈謐靜立方〉,都不只以型式回應環境,也都進一步回應使用行為及構築方式,而這也是「貨櫃」的元素得以讓藝術家及建築師進而發揮的重要價值所在,所謂「只要題目下對了,事情就對一半」就是這個道理。

國立臺南藝術大學建築藝術研究所鄭乘騏+「場域·結構‧行動」組-B群創作作品〈我們都住在黃色潛水艇〉;圖片提供/高雄市立美術館〈攝影/Studio Millspace & KMFA)

國立臺南藝術大學建築藝術研究所鄭乘騏+「場域·結構‧行動」組-B群創作作品〈我們都住在黃色潛水艇〉;圖片提供/高雄市立美術館〈攝影/Studio Millspace & KMFA)

國立臺南藝術大學建築藝術研究所鄭乘騏+「場域·結構‧行動」組-B群創作作品〈我們都住在黃色潛水艇〉;圖片提供/高雄市立美術館〈攝影/Studio Millspace & KMFA)

形構設計方俊傑+方俊能創作作品〈時空口〉;圖片提供/高雄市立美術館〈攝影/Studio Millspace & KMFA)

形構設計方俊傑+方俊能創作作品〈時空口〉;圖片提供/高雄市立美術館〈攝影/Studio Millspace & KMFA)

形構設計方俊傑+方俊能創作作品〈時空口〉;圖片提供/高雄市立美術館〈攝影/Studio Millspace & KMFA)

英國福斯特聯合建築師事務所(Foster+Partner)建築師邱維煬 × QIU(Quality Innovation United)作品〈謐靜立方〉;圖片提供/高雄市立美術館〈攝影/Studio Millspace & KMFA)

英國福斯特聯合建築師事務所(Foster+Partner)建築師邱維煬 × QIU(Quality Innovation United)作品〈謐靜立方〉;圖片提供/高雄市立美術館〈攝影/Studio Millspace & KMFA)

英國福斯特聯合建築師事務所(Foster+Partner)建築師邱維煬 × QIU(Quality Innovation United)作品〈謐靜立方〉;圖片提供/高雄市立美術館〈攝影/Studio Millspace & KMFA)

從實體到虛擬的整合展演型態反思何謂「真實」
2021年全世界都因為疫情關係影響甚鉅,無論國內外所有大大小小的展覽無一倖免。台灣這段時間因為疫情稍有控制,使得相關展演有虛有實,也因此造就更多展覽呈現的多樣嘗試。如2021高雄國際貨櫃藝術節主題「范布倫之星」策展概念所描述:「『我們每個人心裡都有一顆星星』,在後疫情的時代中,除了以更謙卑的姿態來面對及回望自然外,更要讓內在的星光,重新引導我們看見未來的新盼望…」。藝術之所以吸引人,重點就在於其擁有獨立於現實世界的「超現實」呈現的機會,也藉此成為引導大家反思當下的策略行動。

本屆有多件以數位展示的方式展出貨櫃的其他創意想像,實則因疫情而導致的港口卡關、航運阻塞,以及全球性缺料缺櫃等「一櫃難求」的狀態下所造成的策展結果,但反過來看這也不就是告訴我們「地球上的資源有限,但人的慾望無窮」的真實反饋?虛實之間要取得平衡,這也正是後疫情生活在地球村的我們所應反思及面對的「真實」。
 
另外為擴大參與「貨櫃」的創意發想,2021高雄國際貨櫃藝術節也有「貨櫃異/藝世界:創意模型貨櫃」展出。此系列展演對筆者來說除了展演更多貨櫃的創意理念外,有感其中弦外之音,就仿佛在預告或是銜接未來(疫後)得以延展更多對於貨櫃的發想,同時也作為與民眾進一步更多互動的參與機制。

2021高雄國際貨櫃藝術節「貨櫃異/藝世界:創意模型貨櫃」;圖片提供/高雄市立美術館〈攝影/Studio Millspace & KMFA)

2021高雄國際貨櫃藝術節「貨櫃異/藝世界:創意模型貨櫃」;圖片提供/高雄市立美術館〈攝影/Studio Millspace & KMFA)

2021高雄國際貨櫃藝術節「貨櫃異/藝世界:創意模型貨櫃」;圖片提供/高雄市立美術館〈攝影/Studio Millspace & KMFA)

以探索海洋城市特色為基礎,運用貨櫃導引出空間構築創意的藝術行動
高雄以台灣重要海洋城市自居,對民眾來說是顯而易見的。如何讓民眾經由空間構築的創意形式,透過身體經驗進一步達到藝術性及生活感知,也就成為「高雄國際貨櫃藝術節」的核心價值所在。「2021高雄國際貨櫃藝術節:范布倫之星」系列展演活動在世界疫情影響下依舊不畏艱難的展出,從某個角度來看光過程中努力從資源盤點、理念論述進而順利策畫展出的本身就具有其藝術價值,值得肯定及嘉許。
 
回歸到展出作品本身來看,「以探索海洋城市特色為基礎,運用貨櫃導引出空間構築創意的藝術行動」,是筆者為「高雄國際貨櫃藝術節」作品所下的檢視基礎,也是對「2021高雄國際貨櫃藝術節—范布倫之星」這系列展演成果之所以會有高度肯定的主要原因。也期待當世界疫情解封之時,「高雄國際貨櫃藝術節」能以本屆高度作為基礎下,讓「貨櫃異/藝世界」能有更多的發揮,試著探尋出更多「不在場的貨櫃」,同時為台灣環境藝術建立結合場域、空間構築及虛實展演的策展典範。

 

「高雄國際貨櫃藝術節」試著探尋出更多「不在場的貨櫃」,同時為台灣環境藝術建立結合場域、空間構築及虛實展演的策展典範;圖片提供/高雄市立美術館〈攝影/Studio Millspace & KMFA)

2021 Kaohsiung International Container Arts Festival—Van Buren Supernova
Based on Exploring the Features of the Marine City, the Art of Using Containers Leads to Creative Spatial Construction
 
Kaohsiung International Container Arts Festival is now in its 11th year since 2001. It can be considered as one of the most important events in Taiwan in recent years, in which the characteristics of the city are developed through artistic co-creation with local features. Over the years, the priority of the performance venues has always been continuing the major areas of the urban development of Kaohsiung. And through years of accumulation, the results are shown. One of the core elements that remains unchanged is the exploration of the feature of the marine city as an important foundation. Accordingly, what would represent the marine city? If the marine city is a canvas, how should environmental art be presented? Containers are therefore becoming the premier choice.

As the container is to the ocean, so is the building in the city that the public can understand. At the same time, the container also has the opportunity to show spatial construction. Regardless of the terms of imagery or artistic performance, they both have unlimited potential for development. For this reason, from 2001 to 2021, after nearly 20 years, a total of the 11th Kaohsiung International Container Arts Festival has been held. It has a pivotal role when reviewing the festival from the perspective of the development of environmental art in Taiwan. 2021 Kaohsiung International Container Arts Festival—Van Buren Supernova responds to the impact of the epidemic, it has multiple formats of exhibits that combine virtual and physical artworks. Accordingly, one can see the diverse possibilities of environmental art performances through the festival. 

This test attempts to look at the sides of environmental development of the marine city of Kaohsiung, its spatial construction, and virtual-real integrated performance. And elaborating on each of the observations and thoughts from the cases, and so to move on developing the sample and reference for subsequent environmental art practices. 

Kaohsiung as a bellwether in reviving Marine City
Taiwan is surrounded by oceans, and the past development of the industry seems to be closely connected to the ocean. There are commercial ports from all over Taiwan that connect to the international and domestic harbors, and so it can see the features of the ocean industry. In response to the changes in the cargo port industry around the world, the scales of the ports were also adjusted by the situation. While a port is adjusting from a “goods” oriented development mindset to a “people” oriented focus, it also indicates the need to change the facilities, space planning, and design of the port. The Port of Kaohsiung is the pioneer in this line of thinking in Taiwan, opening the port,  and opening up the imagination of how to place people at the center of spatial planning in Taiwan ports.

With the opening of the port, its use of space has also changed. It extends to significant landmarks, such as the Pier-2 Art Center, Kaohsiung Port Warehouse No.2 (KW2), Kaohsiung Music Center, and Kaohsiung Port Cruise Terminal. And emerging the catering, hospitality, and art and culture industries in the vicinity of Kaohsiung Port, which is different from the port-based service industries in the past. This change has shortened the distance between the ocean and people‘s daily life. It also further highlights the scenic characteristics of Kaohsiung as a marine city.

In this point of view, apart from further gathering people through the development of hardware, how can the awareness of the marine city be inspired more profoundly? Environmental Art initiative is one of the most prominent activities, and it is in this context that the Kaohsiung International Container Arts Festival was born. Coordinating with the hardware construction and the relative soft performance type to link and complement each other, so that the ocean city imagery can have more diverse potentials to be developed. At the same time, it will also bring people of different attributes to experience the beauty of the marine city, Kaohsiung. 

Using Containers as the Element to Connect Ocean Imagery and the Imagination of Constructive Space

The container is one of the most direct connections to the port industry for the public. If viewing Kaohsiung Port as a canvas, it is also the most effective medium to show the image of the marine city. In addition to the elements that are associated with marine images, for the author, another key value lies in the artistic expression of the constructed space. Since 2001, artists and architects from Taiwan and other countries have been creating different art forms out of containers with fixed unit sizes. Many of the artworks are not only visually stimulating but also deepen the experience of being able to enter the constructed space of the container. It even goes further into life, allowing the awareness to be more connected to the scene of ocean city.

Cheng-Chi Cheng, who is from the Graduate Institute of Architecture, Tainan National University of the Arts, led [Territory, Structure, Action] Group B to create the artwork, We all live in the Yellow Submarine, this year. The title of the artwork tells the audience directly from the beginning that the artwork can be lived in, and the act of living occurs continuously throughout the process of construction to the time that is exhibited in the Festival. The artists who participated in the artwork used their bodies and living habits to dismantle the commonly known systematic container elements to form each living space; and from there, they interpret a variety of residential illusions.

The reason why the author considered it an illusion, is mainly because it is the expectation and fantasy of many people to be so close to a lifestyle that living nearby the harbor. Be around the harbor day and night, and enjoy a life of pleasure. How could such experience have been possible if not for the enabling and protection of art? Also from an architectural point of view, when the container is dismantled to deal with the living environment of different artists, the result is that the neighbors are either courteous to each other or compete with each other. And the interaction also motivates the work to create a forever unfinished state, because people live in it and life is always dynamic and changing. 

The Gate was created by Chun-Chieh Fang and Chun-Neng Fang this year has another attempt to tribute to the image of the marine city. The container is disassembled into pieces and transformed from a horizontal position to a vertical position. This space allows people to naturally look up to the sky and further bring themselves into the fantasy of the vast ocean. In addition, the artwork stands in a vertical position to meet the vast landscape of Kaohsiung harbor, and overall the leveraged situation is impressive. 
 
The Cube as the last artwork was created by the architect, Young Chiu from the renowned architect office Foster+Partner and QIU (Quality Innovation United). The shape of the container responds to its systemic characteristics with several rational square lattices. And it removes the common color diversity of containers; instead, it is extremely simple and presented in an abstract white box as a feeling of tranquil and uncharted place. Let the ocean harbor behind becoming the main character, and the silhouette of people in the white box makes this container, The Cube more imaginative.
 
Whether We all live in a Yellow Submarine, which emphasizes inhabitation, The Gate, which leverages the view of the ocean, or The Cube, which is hidden in the ocean scene in an extremely simplified manner. These artworks not only respond to the surroundings by their shape but also further respond to user behavior and construction methods. And this is where the value of the container element can be advanced by artists and architects. This is the reason for the saying, as long as the title is right, things are half right.

Reflecting on what is Real through the integration of physical and virtual exhibition format

In 2021, the epidemic was impacted enormously on the entire world, no matter if the exhibition is large or small scale, domestically or internationally, it was all spared. In Taiwan, the epidemic has been under control for a while, which has allowed for a variety of exhibitions to be presented, both in reality and in virtuality. As the theme of 2021 Kaohsiung International Container Arts Festival—Van Buren Supernova its curatorial concept describes, “there is a star in each of our hearts. And in the post-epidemic period, we should not only face and look back at nature with a more humble attitude but also let the inner light of the stars guide us to the new hope for the future…”. Then, what makes art attractive can be the opportunity to present a surreal reality that is independent of the real world, and to serve as a strategic guide for reflection on the present.

This year, there are several other creative imaginations of the containers displayed in digital format. In the situation of the hard-to-get container, which is caused by the epidemic, such as port blockage, shipping obstruction, and the global shortage of materials and containers, leads to the consequences of the curation. On the other hand, is this not an authentic response that tells us, the resources on earth are limited, but human desires are infinite?  Accordingly, we need to reach a balance between virtuality and reality, and this is also the authenticity that we should reflect on and deal with in the global village during the post-epidemic period.
In addition, to expand the participation for the creative ideas of the container, 2021 Kaohsiung International Container Arts Festival also includes the exhibits of The Other-Art-World: Creative Model Containers. This series of exhibits for the author not only shows more creative ideas of containers but also implies another meaning as to inform a preview or a connection to the future (after the epidemic), to extend more possibilities of container development as well as an engagement mechanism for further interaction with the public.
 
Based on the discovery of the characteristics of the marine city, the application of containers leads to an artistic action of spatial construction creativity

Kaohsiung is known as an eminent maritime city in Taiwan, and it is obvious to the public. And about how to enable the public to further achieve artistry and perception of life through physical experience through creative forms of spatial construction—this has become the core value of the Kaohsiung International Container Arts Festival. It is to let the public further achieve artistry and life perception through physical experience and the creative form of space construction. The series of exhibits of 2021 Kaohsiung International Container Arts Festival: Van Buren Supernova has showcased and overcome the difficulties, also despite the world epidemic. From a certain point of view, the efforts made in the process of resource inventory and conceptual discourse led to a satisfactory curatorial event. It already has its artistic value and deserves to be recognized and be praised.

Back to the exhibited artworks, an artistic action based on the discovery of the characteristics of a marine city and the application of containers to lead to creative spatial constructions, the conclusion is the fundamental review to Kaohsiung International Container Arts Festival from the author. It is also the main reason why the result of the container series of events, the 2021 Kaohsiung International Container Arts Festival—Van Buren Supernova is highly recognized. We also look forward to the time when the world epidemic is resolved, Kaohsiung International Container Arts Festival will use its advantage to provide more possibilities to The Other-Art-World in the following time; and try to find out more about The Absent Containers.
Last but not least, 2021 Kaohsiung International Container Arts Festival—Van Buren Supernova establishes a curatorial model for environmental art in Taiwan that integrates site, spatial construction, and virtual and real exhibition.

Text: Yi-Yen Wu
(Manager from the Urbanists Collaborative and A little bit different, and also Director from Mr. Build-ing)
Photos courtesy of Kaohsiung Museum of Fine Arts
Photo credit::Studio Millspace & KMFA

【延伸資訊】
2021高雄貨櫃藝術節:范布倫之星
官網:
https://www.kmfa.gov.tw/2021ContainerArt/index.html

臉書粉專:
https://m.facebook.com/1044828942195517/

購書可洽高美書屋: 
https://www.kmfa.gov.tw/Visit/AtrTravel/Kollection.htm

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撰文/吳宜晏〈都市里人&意點創異經理,建走大叔主理人〉
圖片提供、翻譯/高雄市立美術館
攝影/Studio Millspace & KMFA


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